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   Table of Contents - Current issue
Coverpage
January-June 2021
Volume 6 | Issue 1
Page Nos. 1-54

Online since Monday, November 29, 2021

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ORIGINAL ARTICLES  

Assessment of impaction pattern of mandibular third molars: A radiographic survey Highly accessed article p. 1
M Preethi, C Deepak
DOI:10.4103/ijosr.ijosr_6_21  
Introduction: Third molars are known as wisdom teeth as they erupt after 18 years of age. In a lot of individuals, they fail to erupt onto the oral cavity owing to a variety of reasons, the most common being lack of space in the dental arch. The aim of this study is to assess the pattern of Mandibular third molar impactions using the orthopantomograph (OPG). Materials and Methods: OPGs of 150 patients (91 female and 59 male) who were between 18 and 25 years of age and had impacted mandibular third molars were assessed for gender, side of the mandible having greater frequency of impaction, and the pattern of impaction of the third molars. Results: Bilateral imapction (26.66%) was more common when compared with than and particular left (23.33%) or right (19.33%) unilateral impactions. The mesioangular pattern of impaction was more common in both male and female and was followed by distoangular, vertical, and horizontal patterns. Conclusion: The study showed that there was no gender predilection in the presence of impacted mandibular third molars and that the mesioangular pattern of impaction was more common.
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General dental practitioners knowledge of dental radiography among dentist in Chennai, India Highly accessed article p. 4
Praveen, L Jailance
DOI:10.4103/ijosr.ijosr_21_21  
Introduction: Dental radiographs are one of the principal diagnostic methods used in dentistry. The safe and effective use of X-ray equipment is important to the protection of the patient and members of the dental team. The aim of this research is to evaluate the general dental practitioner's knowledge of dental radiography. Materials and Methods: The data were collected from fifty general dental practitioners at self-convenience using a structured questionnaire consisting of 9-item questionnaire. The sample was selected based on inclusion criteria and exclusion criteria. Inclusion criteria include undergraduate, postgraduate, and Chennai dental practitioners. The exclusion criteria include the students and dental radiograph assistants. In the questionnaire, details were asked about the age of the intraoral radiographic unit, kVp and mA of the equipment, the type of timer on the machine and about the geometry of the machine, and the geometric technique used for intraoral radiography. Furthermore, the questionnaire contained questions about the type of intraoral detectors that were used and whether the dentists were also using panoramic machines and, if so, which type of detector they had. Among the possible answers, one option was “no idea.” The data thus obtained were subjected to statistical evaluation. Results: 80% (40 dentist) of the equipment used in South Chennai dentist was reported to operate between 60 and 70 kVp, whereas 20% (10 dentist) claimed to be working at a tube voltage of 50 kVp. Conclusion: The results of this study showed that the knowledge of dentist in South Chennai regarding dentomaxillofacial radiology is excellent. The level of awareness of practitioners regarding radiation hazards and safety was found to be acceptable.
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Trauma and spinal cord injury – A narrative review p. 9
G Josiah Stanely Rose, Karthikeyan Pandiyambakkam Rajendran, P Udhayakumar, M Anita
DOI:10.4103/ijosr.ijosr_4_21  
An accident or traumatic injury to the spinal cord may result in a serious and irreversible spinal cord injury. Such spinal injury causes significant changes in the life of the injured person and his or her family members. Spinal cord injury can require extreme physical, locomotor, and psychological adaptation which exerts enormous pressure on the patients' families, who plays critically vital roles in providing support and care. It is a struggle for both victims and their families. Few studies have captured exactly not only the major physical injury but also the long-term consequences of spinal cord injury in the patients living with such injuries over time. Besides impacting the health, well-being and psychosocial behaviors of individual victims but also the interpersonal relationship within the family members. The objectives of the study are to identify the burdens of spinal cord injury and the challenges faced by persons with spinal cord injury in their day-to-day life in India and to know the intervention strategies to enhance the quality of life of persons with spinal cord injury. Therefore, the current study besides highlighting the issues faced by spinal cord injury patients also helps in greater understanding of the burden of spinal cord injury and its public health importance in India.
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Measuring orthognathic surgery satisfaction in orthodontic patients – A questionnaire survey p. 15
S Thasleema Banu, N Kannan
DOI:10.4103/ijosr.ijosr_11_21  
Introduction: In orthodontic-surgical treatment, the motivation of the patient for seeking treatment and her/his expectations of the results should be considered carefully in treatment planning. Therefore, the patient satisfaction will be improved. The objective of this study was to develop a reliable self-report measure of consumer satisfaction with orthodontic treatment, and to preliminarily assess its validity. The aim of this study was to assess patients who have undergone orthognathic surgery. Materials and Methods: A patient-centered questionnaire to assess the satisfaction of the patients undergoing orthognathic surgery was being prepared and given to fifty patients in Private Dental College, and the results are being discussed. This questionnaire is easily and quickly applicable and economic, however, it should be kept in mind that it is subjective. Results: Fifty participants who attended the out patient of Department of Orthodontics, Private Dental College, were included in the study. When questions were asked about their experience in the department, 98% felt the treatment was hygienic, 96% felt the treatment was expensive, and 86% felt they were well informed. Moreover, only 62% had discomfort during the treatment. When asked about treatment outcomes, 97% had a smile satisfaction and 95% said they would recommend to friends. Eighty-eight percent felt they had experienced pain. Finally, questions were asked about how it affects the quality of life of the patients. Conclusion: Orthognathic surgery causes a significant improvement in patients' quality of life. This improvement was seen in emotional, oral function, psychological, and social domains of quality of life. The maximum influence was in emotional and the least in functional aspect. Our study assessed the quality of life in a limited period postoperatively, and obviously, there is a need for longitudinal studies in this area of health-care services.
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Factors contributing to not seeking orthodontic treatment in male adolescents - A questionnaire study p. 19
Preethi Manoharan, Anu
DOI:10.4103/ijosr.ijosr_14_21  
Introduction: Motivation is an impetus for patients to seek orthodontic treatment; it also affects adherence, treatment outcomes, and satisfaction towards orthodontic treatment. The aim of this study was to assess the lack of motivation of adult male patients or the other reasons responsible for not seeking orthodontic treatment, and classify the patients according to their reasons. Prejudiced notions about treatment and various fears have created a resistance or hesitation towards orthodontic treatment in men. The aim of this study is to assess the mind set and overall attitude of male adolescent patients toward not seeking orthodontic correction for malocclusion. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire based study was conducted at the department of Orthodontics, Private Dental College, a total of 50 male subjects with malocclusions requiring orthodontic interventions were selected for the study. Data was collected using a structured, self-administered questionnaire which was designed after reviewing recent articles, developments and also similar questionnaires that are based on the objectives of the study. Results: Sixty-nine percent of subjects were aware that they had a malocclusion whereas the remaining 31% were not aware. On asking as to why they were not correcting the malocclusion, 18% stated that it was embarrassing to wear braces, 4% stated that the treatment was too expensive, 19% stated that the treatment was that of a long duration, 7% felt they were too old for seeking orthodontic treatment, 6% had no interest to do the treatment, 9% stated it would painful, another 16% had concerns that food would get stuck to the braces, 21% were scared to undergo treatment. Conclusion: The unwillingness of male adolescent patients for seeking orthodontic treatment is studied and the reasons are discussed. This will help in educating them on the long term effects of malocclusion and to convince them for opting to go ahead with orthodontic treatment.
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Patients knowledge and attitude in endodontic treatment: A questionnaire-based study p. 22
M Dhanalakshmi, Anith Balaji
DOI:10.4103/ijosr.ijosr_19_21  
Introduction: The basic aspect of modern endodontics is painlessness and effectiveness of the treatment of diseased dental pulp. The disease of dental pulp is mainly caused due to dental caries. Dental caries is a common chronic disease prevalent all over the world. It is a microbiologic disease which manifests as demineralization of hard tissues of the tooth. If detected early, its management can be done easily via conservative techniques such as restorations. As it progresses to involve the vascular tissue of the tooth, it may cause symptoms such as pain and swelling. This leads patients to seek dental care. In addition, dental decay may cause tooth loss which can reduce the ability to eat fibrous foods, leading to dietary deficiencies. Root canal treatment (RCT) is a procedure that uses biologically acceptable chemical and mechanical treatment in the root canal system to eliminate pulpal and peri-radicular diseases and to promote healing and repair of peri-radicular tissue.The aim of this research is to study the patients' knowledge and attitude in endodontic treatment. Materials and Methods: A total of 13 questions were prepared and distributed to 100 patients in Private Dental College which included recording patients' knowledge and attitude toward root canal therapy. Results: About 68% of participants responded positively, but when asked in detail what RCT does and whether it is complicated, the responses were mixed and majority did not know or were not sure. Conclusion: From the self-prepared questionnaire and based on the responses acquired, it can be seen that on an average 58% of responses for all fifteen questions turned out to be positive and patients who had prior knowledge about RCT were interested in proceeding post endodontic treatments to increase the success of RCT.
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Frequency of denture cleansing – A survey p. 28
M Preethy, N Nagappan
DOI:10.4103/ijosr.ijosr_18_21  
Introduction: Most of the patients clean their dentures only once a day. However, according to ideal practices, the complete dentures should be cleaned regularly at least twice a day to prevent ulcers, periodontal diseases, and various lesions in the oral cavity. Like natural teeth dentures also should be cleaned with a brush or with denture cleaners. This must be done regularly to prevent food accumulation and plaque formation. The most common outcome of improper cleaning of the dentures may lead to a condition called denture stomatitis which is the inflammation of the mouth due to poor oral hygiene. Hence, it is necessary to clean the dentures properly to avoid the above-mentioned problems. Materials and Methods: The present study was conducted with 50 patients of age groups ranging from 40 to 65 years. A questionnaire was prepared, and the information was collected based on details such as age, gender, duration of denture wearing, frequency of denture cleansing, the materials used to clean the dentures, and nocturnal denture wearing habits. The purpose of the study was explained to the patients and their consent along with their signature and was recorded on the questionnaire. The data were later tabulated, and statistical analysis was done using the SPSS software, and the results were given. Results: The present study reveals that most of the patients were aware about importance of denture cleansing and materials used to clean the dentures. They were also aware about the technique to clean dentures and also about the nocturnal use of dentures and adverse effects of not maintaining their dentures properly. Conclusion: Based on the study, the denture hygiene of patients has significantly improved with patients brushing their dentures twice a day or sometimes thrice a day with cleansing liquid and tablets. However, there are a few patients who slept with their dentures at night which should be avoided. Thus, dentists should take the responsibility of providing postplacement denture hygiene instructions and also to motivate the patients.
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Prevalence of various classes of kennedy's classification – a cross-sectional survey p. 32
Amrita Ajith, Lakshmi Menon
DOI:10.4103/ijosr.ijosr_5_21  
Introduction: The design of prosthetic replacement depends upon the patterns of partial edentulism. The aim of the classification of partially edentulous arches is to facilitate the communication of prosthesis designs and treatment options among professional colleagues, students, and technicians. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of various classes of Kennedy's classification in patients reporting to Saveetha Dental College. Materials and Methods: One hundred and seventy patients were recruited in this study from February 2015 to May 2015 of the age group of 30–60 years. Kennedy's classification was utilized after applying Applegate's rules to record the partial edentulism. Results: One hundred and one male patients and 69 female patients participated in this study. Out of this, 71 were bite cases and 99 were single arch cases. Partial edentulism in the maxillary arch was found in 22.3% patients, whereas 35.9% patients had partial edentulism in the mandibular arch. The remaining 41.8% of patients had missing teeth in both arches. Kennedy's Class I was found to be most common, whereas Kennedy's Class IV the least common. Conclusion: A higher frequency of tooth loss due to dental caries and negligence of oral health among the patients in this study is quite alarming and is suggestive of need to create the awareness among dental health-care system for timely prevention of diseases and factors leading to tooth loss. By bringing about the awareness of tooth loss and available treatment options, the dental needs of the community could be met leading to an overall improvement in their quality of life.
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Knowledge and practice of endodontic treatment carried out by general practitioners in Chennai: A questionnaire survey p. 36
K Saravanan, Shakul Hameed
DOI:10.4103/ijosr.ijosr_7_21  
Introduction: Root canal treatment (RCT) is taken into account as a necessary component within the dental services provided to the population in developed furthermore as developing countries. It is the responsibility of the academics and dental schools to prepare their students to adopt the guidelines and recommended standards in root canal debridement, shaping, and obturation. The aim of this questionnaire survey was to evaluate the knowledge and practice of endodontic treatment carried out by general practitioners in Chennai. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire was developed with 15 questions based on knowledge and practice of endodontic treatment and was sent to 50 general dental practitioners (n = 50). The collected data were entered into a personal computer and analyzed. Results: In the present study, all the participants, i.e. 100%, reported that they perform root canal procedures in posterior teeth. Isolation was mainly done using rubber dam in 32% of the dentists. The step-back technique was the most popular root canal preparation technique (76%). Forty-two percent of the dentists in Chennai tended to use hand instruments and 40% of them prefer K-files for cleaning and shaping the root canals. Every dentist in Chennai takes radiographs in every step of RCT. Fifty-eight percent of the dentists used normal saline for irrigation. Every dentist reported that they use gutta-percha as an obturating material in which 52% of them used lateral condensation technique. Every dentist used zinc oxide eugenol as a sealer. The coronal access cavity was sealed by temporary restorative material immediately after the treatment, and the permanent sealing was done later on by themselves. Conclusion: Based on this survey, it was demonstrated that dentists performed procedures which often deviated from well-acknowledged endodontic quality guidelines. General practitioners did not seem to keep up with recently introduced techniques but use more conventional methods. Most of the conventional techniques used by dentists were reported to have increased success rate.
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Oral potentially malignant disorders among dental patients p. 40
Eva Shamlee, Sreedhar Reddy
DOI:10.4103/ijosr.ijosr_13_21  
Introduction: Most potentially malignant disorders (PMDs) are asymptomatic, and the main aim of treatment is to prevent and/or to detect cancer development early. Etiological factors can be identified and patients can be warned of the potential of malignancy. Abstinence from tobacco and alcohol, even after many years of use, significantly reduces the risk of developing cancer. The knowledge of susceptibility to cancer among the general population must be imparted by awareness programs and publications in media. Oral PMDs may be considered a blessing in disguise as they can help in early diagnosis and prevention of oral malignancies which can decrease the burden of cancer prevalence, especially in the youth and working class of the society. Results: According to this survey, awareness of oral PMDs was low among patients. It was found that television and Internet had played a significant role in patients who were aware of oral precancerous conditions. The aim of this survey is to assess the awareness about oral PMDs among dental patients. Materials and Methods: To assess the awareness about oral PMDs, a self-interviewed questionnaire was used to collect information from 100 patients of different age groups attending the dental hospital, Chennai. The questionnaire was designed and included relevant questions to ascertain information on awareness, and sources of information about oral precancerous conditions. Results: A total of 100 questionnaires were distributed. The study population consisted of 41 female and 59 male patients of different age groups. Forty-two percent of the individuals out of 100 were aware of PMDs whereas, 58% did not know about it. Conclusion: According to this survey, awareness of oral PMDs was low among patients.
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Evaluation of knowledge, experience, and perception about medical emergencies among dental graduates (interns) p. 46
Geerthana Muthu, C Deepak
DOI:10.4103/ijosr.ijosr_9_21  
Introduction: The study is based on the effective management of an emergency situation in the dental office. The lack of training and inability to cope with medical emergencies can lead to tragic consequences and sometimes legal action. For this reason, all health professionals including dentists must be well prepared to attend to medical emergencies. Providing basic life support (BLS) is the dentist's most important contribution until definitive treatment for a medical emergency can be given. The aim of the study is to evaluate the knowledge, experience, and perception about medical emergencies among dental graduates (interns). Materials and Methods: Data were collected from 100 Interns of Private Dental College of Chennai, India, by using a structured questionnaire consisting of the 7-item questionnaire (6 closed and 1 open). Statistical analysis was performed to analyze the study. Results: Among 100 dental students, who participated in the following study, only 70% of them were aware of the medical emergency drugs and their uses, the confidence level of the students was abruptly good in those students and 30% of the students should improve the level of confidence in using and handling of the drugs. Conclusion: The study is useful to gain knowledge for dental students in case of medical emergency situations.
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Prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders among dental students: A questionnaire survey p. 50
S Geethika, N Sharada
DOI:10.4103/ijosr.ijosr_32_21  
Introduction: The most important causes of this disorder can be awkward postures, repetitive and rapid movements, excessive force, psychological factors, and genetic and generally inappropriate body condition. Damage or injury can be defined as a disorder of the musculoskeletal system (muscles, ligaments, tendons, joints, nerves, blood vessels, and soft tissues). The symptoms of musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) increase with the number of years of practice. The prevention and reduction of MSDs among dentists should include their knowledge in dental ergonomics and awareness regarding the importance of work-related risk factors. This study aimed to identify risk factors for MSDs among dentists and identify its effective risk factors, in order to reduce musculoskeletal problems, and is designed to improve the work environment. Materials and Methods: The target population of this investigation was the students of dental school. A sample of 300 questionnaires were distributed. To determine the prevalence of MSDs, the questionnaire was prepared. The questionnaire assessed the MSDs, pain in different organs of the body. Finally, the results are evaluated in percentage. Results: Out of 300 questionnaires distributed, the female prevalence was higher. Eighty-six percent of the people do not do physical exercise daily. Seventy-one percent of the dental students take rest after each patient, 15% take rest once an hour, and 13% of the students never take rest at all. Ninety-five percent of the dental students involve frequent bending of elbows and joints. Ninety-one percent of them feel some kind of musculoskeletal discomfort in the body and other 9% are free from it. Most discomfort is felt in the neck region that is 41% and 23% in one or both elbows, 15% in one or both shoulders, and 20% in back/spine. Sixty-six percent of the students feel the pain most of the time and 22% always and 11% at times. Fifty percent of the students follow periodic stretching and breaks as the pain relief strategy. Thirty-six percent follow postural awareness strategy and 13% follow strengthening exercises. Conclusion: Therefore, dentists should implement right ergonomic designs in their dental clinics along with doing regular exercise and relaxation techniques, which help them to combat stress, thus improving the quality of life and resulting in consistent long-lasting work efficiency of the dentists.
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