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ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Prevalence of impacted teeth and their associated pathologies on panoramic films in the Saudi Population
Kamal Kanthan Ravikumar, Basem T Jamal, Raneem Ageel, Abdulrahman A Binaffif, Basmah Ageel, Leena Karkashan, Anas Olwi, Zuhair Natto
July-December 2018, 3(2):40-46
DOI:10.4103/ijosr.ijosr_3_18  
Aim: This study aimed to assess the prevalence of impacted teeth and their associated pathologies according to age, gender, site, and type of impaction in the Saudi population in the city of Jeddah using digital panoramic radiographs. Materials and Methods: A total of 2431 digital panoramic radiographs taken during the period between January 2010 and January 2017 were analyzed following exclusion criteria. Finally, a total of 2229 X-rays were considered for the study. Results: The most commonly impacted teeth were upper and lower left third mandibular molars. The most common angulation type was horizontal and the least was vertical impaction. Based on the overlying tissue covering the impacted teeth, soft-tissue impactions were the most common. There was no statistically significant outcome regarding the pathologies as cysts or tumors associated with the impacted teeth. There was a significant association between mesioangular impacted teeth and caries in the second molars. Conclusion: In our study, partial bony mesioangular impactions in level B positions were associated with significant distal caries in the second molars, whereas vertical impactions in level C positions caused increased distal bony loss and resorption which would warrant early surgical intervention in patients and also help in informing the patients on the ramifications of delaying the same. A statistically significant number of partial bony impacted third molars were carious, warranting early intervention.
  6,568 542 -
Prevalence of dental anxiety among undergraduate students at Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences, Tanzania
Paulo Joseph Laizer, Tumaini Simon Ndekero, Karpal Singh Sohal
July-December 2018, 3(2):33-36
DOI:10.4103/ijosr.ijosr_1_19  
Background: Dental anxiety is one of the most common phobias and among the major problems in dentistry. Students in medical field are future health professionals who are supposed to provide a positive attitude toward dentistry to the society. However, if they have dental anxiety, their attitude toward dentistry is likely to be negative. Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of dental anxiety among undergraduate students at Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences (MUHAS). Methodology: This was a descriptive cross-sectional study involving undergraduate students at MUHAS. Data were collected using self-administered Modified Dental Anxiety Scale questionnaire with additional questions on demographic characteristics and a list of fear-provoking factors. Data were entered and analyzed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences computer software version 19.0 (2010; IBM Corp., Armonk, NY, USA). Chi-square test was used to assess the association between variables, and the significance level was set at P < 0.05. Results: This study enrolled 252 undergraduate students with an age range of 18–39 years. More than half (54.4%) were males. Most (55.2%) of the participants had some degree of dental anxiety. The prevalence of dental anxiety was relatively higher in females (70.4%). The association between dental anxiety and the degree courses was significant. Dental students had the lowest dental anxiety level compared to nondental students. Conclusion: The prevalence of dental anxiety among undergraduate students at MUHAS was high. Dental anxiety was significantly higher in female students. There was a significant relationship between dental anxiety and the degree course of the participants.
  6,008 542 -
REVIEW ARTICLES
Pain in the face: An overview of pain of nonodontogenic origin
Kamal Kanthan Ravikumar, Karthik Ramakrishnan
January-June 2018, 3(1):1-5
DOI:10.4103/ijosr.ijosr_1_17  
It is common for pain in the orofacial region to be mistaken for a toothache, and similarly, other pains of the head and neck to mimic odontogenic pain orofacial pain may pose a diagnostic dilemma for the dental practitioner. The purpose of this article is to: (a) provide the dental practitioner with an understanding of pain etiology to consider when developing differential diagnoses for orofacial pains and (b) review various types of nonodontogenic pains which may be mistaken for a toothache. Ultimately, this article will aid the dental practitioner with preventing misdiagnosis and delivery of incorrect and sometimes irreversible procedures for nonodontogenic pain.
  5,398 762 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Prevalence of elongated styloid process and elongation pattern on digital panoramic radiographs in Saudi Population, Jeddah
Basem T Jamal, Kamal Kanthan Ravikumar, Suha H Alyawar, Israa N Maghrabi, Abeer M Alshaikh, Hala H Jabbad, Tala H Alsohaibi
July-December 2018, 3(2):37-39
DOI:10.4103/ijosr.ijosr_2_19  
Aim: The aim of our research is to establish the prevalence of Elongated Styloid Process in Saudi Arabia Jeddah using panoramic radiographs and the assessment of the patient's age, gender, sides, and type. Materials and Methods: This study was performed as a retrospective analysis on digital panoramic radiographs using the record base archives of the International Medical Center, dental department in Jeddah. In this study, 1971 radiographs were examined. The radiographs reviewed were taken between January 2010 - January 2017 using KaVo radiographic machine model OP300-1. The patient demographics, length of the SP at the right and left side and the classification pattern were entered in spreadsheet in microsoft excel 2007; and the statistical calculation were obtained by using SPSS ( Statistical Package for Social Science ) version 21 software. 0.01. Result: The mean length of the styloid process was 29.05 mm in our study . In females it was 29.17 mm and in males it was 31.30 mm with the length being more in males than in females and the result being statistically significant with p value (0.000). The length of the styloid process increased with the age progressively and it was statistically significant with p value 0.004. The average length of right side styloid process in all age groups is 30.2mm and the left side is 29.6mm with the right side being more than the left and the results were statistically significant p value (0.00). SP Type I elongation was the highest on both the right and left sides and also in all the age groups as compared to Types II and III.
  5,272 488 -
LETTER TO EDITOR
Containing Violence against Children: Global Perspective
Saurabh RamBihariLal Shrivastava, Prateek Saurabh Shrivastava
July-December 2018, 3(2):47-47
DOI:10.4103/ijosr.ijosr_4_18  
  3,924 422 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Body image perception: An early predictor of weight change among medical students
Bhawana Pant, Sartaj Ahmad, Arvind Kumar Shukla, Chhavi Kiran
January-June 2018, 3(1):6-9
DOI:10.4103/ijosr.ijosr_3_16  
Body image is a multidimensional dynamic construct that involves internal biological and psychological factors as well as external cultural and social determinants. Individuals who perceive their bodies negatively with regard to culturally valued features may have low self-esteem, low satisfaction in life, and feeling of inferiority and pose themselves at higher risk for depression, anxiety, or eating disorders. With the change in epidemiological shift, India is witnessing simultaneous manifestation of double burden of communicable and noncommunicable disease with a challenging and daunting task for stakeholders to identify issues, resolve conflict, mobilize resources, and overcome situation with innovative solution and strategies. The presence of psychological and psychiatric morbidities among medical students has been reported in various studies conducted across the world.
  3,503 443 -
Prediction of postoperative outcome in mandibular third molar surgery based on preoperative variables: A Prospective clinical study
Kamal Kanthan Ravikumar, Vinod Narayanan, Mathivanan
January-June 2018, 3(1):14-23
DOI:10.4103/ijosr.ijosr_2_17  
Aims: The aim of the present study is to investigate the relationship between preoperative findings and the postoperative outcome following surgical removal of lower third molar. Settings and Design: This is a prospective observational study conducted at the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Saveetha University. A total of 104 patients requiring surgical removal of unilateral third molar were evaluated. Patients who were on antibiotics and analgesic for an underlying problem related to impacted third molars preoperatively were excluded. Preoperative variables evaluated were age, sex, maximum interincisal distance, facial measurements both vertical and horizontal, radiographic measurement of position, class, angulation of impacted lower third molar, experience of operator, and duration of surgery. Postoperative evaluation was done on the 1st and 4th day and 7th postoperative day, and the following parameters were evaluated: facial swelling, pain, dry socket, secondary infection, paresthesia, postoperative bleeding, and fracture of jaw. Statistical Analysis Used: The preoperative parameters and postoperative outcomes were compared and correlated using one-way ANOVA, independent “t” test, and Chi-square test. Results: There is statistically significant result to demonstrate that pain and swelling increase with age, the depth of impaction, and when there is no adequate available space between the anterior border of ramus and second molar. As duration of surgery increases, pain, swelling, trismus, and frequency of dry socket increase in our study. Frequency of dry socket increases with increased depth of impaction. Conclusions: In our study, age, sex, the depth of impaction, the space available for the impacted tooth between the anterior border of ramus and second molar, duration of surgery, and horizontal and distoangular impactions have a positive correlation with the outcome of surgical removal of third molar.
  3,224 457 -
Hospital-based corneal retrieval at Shimla hills: An effective alternative to improve eye donation - Retrospective analysis of an eye bank data
Ram Lal Sharma, Kalpana Sharma, Shashi Sharma, Shagun Korla
January-June 2018, 3(1):10-13
DOI:10.4103/ijosr.ijosr_2_18  
Aim: The retrospective analysis of eye bank data was done in terms of sociodemographic profile, topography, and types of donations for procurement. Materials and Methods: The data of 6 years' period from 2011 to 2016 were retrieved from the records available in the eye bank of the Department of Ophthalmology IGMC, Shimla, Himachal Pradesh, India. Results: There were 100 eye donations during this period in which 48 were males and 52 were females. Most of the donors belong to the age group of 60–80 years (n = 45), the corneal grade was B + in most of the cases (39%). The number of donors with rural background was more (71%) than that of donors with the urban background (29%) as the population profile of the state is mostly rural. The hospital-based motivational eye donations constituted as many as 91 eye donations and 9 only were voluntary. Conclusion: Hospital corneal retrieval program is the main source of eye donations as the difficult hilly terrains of the state, and harsh climatic conditions in winters limit the home-based retrieval of corneas. If hospital-based deaths are converted to eye donation, it can overcome the demand-supply gap in corneal blindness.
  3,229 395 -
CASE REPORT
Clinical and genetic analysis of a familial nonsyndromic oligodontia in a female patient: A rare case report
Saraswathi K Gopal, B G Harsha Vardhan, J Vijayashree Priyadharsini, M Padma
January-June 2018, 3(1):24-29
DOI:10.4103/ijosr.ijosr_3_17  
Teeth agenesis is the most prevalent craniofacial congenital malformation in humans. Missing teeth is described in literature by various terms such as oligodontia, anodontia, and hypodontia. While tooth agenesis may be associated with several syndromes, nonsyndromic oligodontia refers to the congenital absence of more than six teeth in the absence of any other deformity. Studies in molecular genetics have made it possible to identify the exact genes responsible for the development of teeth and trace the mutations that cause oligodontia. The present case describes agenesis of permanent teeth which are familial and with no apparent systemic abnormalities.
  3,197 317 -
LETTER TO EDITOR
Impact of new amendments in child labor laws on the health of children in India
Madhur Borah
January-June 2018, 3(1):30-31
DOI:10.4103/ijosr.ijosr_2_16  
  2,958 445 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Evaluation of knowledge, experience, and perceptions about medical emergencies among dentists in Chennai, India
NM Pravina, R Ganesh
January-June 2020, 5(1):1-5
DOI:10.4103/ijosr.ijosr_10_21  
Introduction: Dentists encounter medical emergencies in their clinics which can be life threatening. These emergencies should be treated immediately and cannot be avoided or referred, because they put the life and health of patients at risk. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate how well dentists understand medical emergency during dental treatment. The aim of this research is to evaluate the knowledge, experience, and perceptions about medical emergencies among dentists in Chennai, India. Materials and Methods: Data were collected from 50 dentists of Chennai at self-convenience using a structured questionnaire consisting of a 10-item questionnaire. The sample was selected based on certain inclusion and exclusion criteria. Inclusion criteria include postgraduates and South Chennai dentists. Exclusion criteria include students and dental assistants. Results: The study reveals that 60% of the dentists in Chennai were confidently able to deal the life-threatening emergency situations whereas 100% of the dentists have knowledge of how to manage the life-threatening emergency situations. Conclusion: Based on the above study, it can be concluded that the level of training and the level of knowledge on medical emergencies of the dentist in Chennai are good but not up to the desirable standard.
  398 56 -
Personality style and its relation with level of anxiety
Tanushree Chatterjee, Priyanka Kacker
July-December 2020, 5(2):17-20
DOI:10.4103/ijosr.ijosr_3_19  
“Personality is the dynamic organization within the individual of those psychological systems that determine his/her unique adjustments to the environment” (Allport, 1937). It includes behavioral characteristics, both inherent and acquired, that distinguish one person from another and that can be observed in people's relations to the environment and to the social group. The American Psychological Association defines anxiety as “an emotion characterized by feelings of tension, worried thoughts, and physical changes such as increased blood pressure.” Introverts and extroverts experience the world – and experience anxiety – in markedly different ways. Some studies show that introverts are more vulnerable to anxiety hence at a greater risk of clinical depression. This study aims to find a relation between personality type and anxiety level of an individual. The study was conducted on 100 individuals (50 males and 50 females, ranging from the age group of 20–30 years) in which Eysenck's Personality Questionnaire-Revised was used to identify the personality type and Beck Anxiety Inventory, and a self-analysis questionnaire was used to measure the anxiety level of the individual. A comparison between both the test results revealed that individuals who are found to be extroverts indicate mild anxiety on the anxiety scale whereas individuals who are found to be introverts indicate high levels of anxiety on the anxiety scale. The accuracy of this research can however be determined through a more detailed research.
  391 53 -
Assessment of impaction pattern of mandibular third molars: A radiographic survey
M Preethi, C Deepak
January-June 2021, 6(1):1-3
DOI:10.4103/ijosr.ijosr_6_21  
Introduction: Third molars are known as wisdom teeth as they erupt after 18 years of age. In a lot of individuals, they fail to erupt onto the oral cavity owing to a variety of reasons, the most common being lack of space in the dental arch. The aim of this study is to assess the pattern of Mandibular third molar impactions using the orthopantomograph (OPG). Materials and Methods: OPGs of 150 patients (91 female and 59 male) who were between 18 and 25 years of age and had impacted mandibular third molars were assessed for gender, side of the mandible having greater frequency of impaction, and the pattern of impaction of the third molars. Results: Bilateral imapction (26.66%) was more common when compared with than and particular left (23.33%) or right (19.33%) unilateral impactions. The mesioangular pattern of impaction was more common in both male and female and was followed by distoangular, vertical, and horizontal patterns. Conclusion: The study showed that there was no gender predilection in the presence of impacted mandibular third molars and that the mesioangular pattern of impaction was more common.
  387 54 -
A survey on evaluation of preparedness for medical emergencies at dental office
H Soniya, Manju
July-December 2019, 4(2):19-22
DOI:10.4103/ijosr.ijosr_12_21  
Introduction: Medical emergencies can occur at any time in the dental office. Every health care provider should be aware of recognizing and handling medical emergencies in their respective workplace. All should be trained and frequently updated regarding aiding patient in emergency situations. The aim of this study is to determine the knowledge and preparedness of a dental practitioner to manage medical emergencies at their dental office. Materials and Methods: A self-administered questionnaire comprising of 10 questions was designed relating to medical emergencies that may occur in dental office, its prevention, and management and was distributed to the practicing dentists in and around Chennai. Results: A total of 150 dentists participated in this study. Of these, 48 were BDS graduates and 102 were MDS graduates. Almost 134 have their working place in urban areas, 12 of them have working place in rural areas and 4 of them have their working place in both urban and rural areas. This study shows almost 97% of surveyed dentists enquire medical history, including medication and allergy. Only 60% of dentists record vital signs of their patients. The study shows that only 72.6% were trained for management of medical emergencies in dental office and 94.6% of them responded that training to dentist for the management of medical emergencies is important. It is found that only 68% of participants have been reported to be confident in handling medical emergency situation, and about 27% have been faced with medical emergency for the past 12 months. Conclusion: Dentists being members of the healthcare profession, should be prepared to deal with medical emergencies which may arise at their workplace. A better knowledge of medical emergencies is essential for further development and professional care for people with various medical complications. This will ensure the provision of better and safer dental healthcare services for the population.
  383 57 -
Psychological impact and knowledge of coronavirus disease 2019 among dental interns and postgraduates: A cross sectional study
Parvathy Premnath, S Vishakha, T Yamuna, M Yogesh Kumar, Zoha Abullah
January-June 2019, 4(1):1-5
DOI:10.4103/ijosr.ijosr_2_21  
Background: Coronaviruses are a large family of viruses that cause a wide range of illness from the common cold to more severe diseases. The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is a public emergency of international concern that affects several nations. The widespread outbreak of COVID 19 virus has brought major psychological pressure among the dental interns. However, the awareness and psychological impact on dental interns and postgraduates has not been studied in Chennai. Aims: This study aimed to evaluate the fear and awareness of infection among dental interns and postgraduates practicing during the current COVID-19 pandemic in and around Chennai and to explore their knowledge about guidelines to fight the virus and to assess various modifications in dental practice. Materials and Methods: An online survey was submitted to dental professionals. Data were collected through a validated questionnaire consisting of 26 closed-ended questions. The gathered data were statistically analyzed. Results: Totally, there were 150 respondents. Majority of students (81%) were anxious about treating the patients during the pandemic. Almost all are afraid of getting quarantined if they get infected. On overall awareness and knowledge part, postgraduates have a slight edge when compared with dental interns. Conclusions: The COVID-19 pandemic has a significant impact on dental professionals. Dental professionals were always vulnerable to infections, many long before the novel coronavirus. Hence, they need to proceed with utmost caution and treat everyone as a potential risk without causing more anxiety.
  376 54 -
Social impact on ophthalmic services during first wave of corona pandemic in sub-himalayan tertiary institute
Ram Lal Sharma, Kalpana Sharma
January-June 2019, 4(1):6-11
DOI:10.4103/ijosr.ijosr_1_21  
Introduction: The novel coronavirus (CoV) known as severe acute respiratory syndrome-CoV-2 has engulfed the entire world. The nations worldwide are engaged in carrying out several research, treatment, and vaccine trials to relieve the world from the shackles of this global pandemic. This pandemic has not only strained health-care facilities but also has psychosocial repercussions. Objective: The objective of the study was to find out the effects of lockdown on ophthalmological services in coronavirus disease (COVID) era and its psychosocial impact. Methods: Retrospective analysis of data in the department of ophthalmology of tertiary care institute from March 2020 to August 2020 was done. This period was compared with corresponding months of previous year 2019. The services affected and the pattern of social behavior during different phases of complete and partial lockdown periods were studied. Results: Strict administrative execution of lockdown and curfews led to the reduction in the number of patients visiting the hospital and accounted for a drastic dip in the number of patients visiting outpatient department and operating procedures. The initial mental defense phases of apprehension, denial, and projection in lockdown period were eventually followed by displacement and suppression in unlockdown period. Conclusion: The number of COVID-positive patients in India has risen exponentially. As per the WHO, this global pandemic is likely to stay longer, the standard protocol for patients and health-care workers needs to be adhered strictly and revised from time to time, as there is an expected surge of patients with visual threatening situations for number of patients who have been deprived of treatment in restriction phases of lockdown. The psychosocial behavior as a result of mental defense mechanisms should also be maneuvered along the pandemic control.
  299 27 -
Status of dentist handling medical emergencies in clinical set-up – A survey
M Halith Ahamed, Vidhya
January-June 2020, 5(1):6-10
DOI:10.4103/ijosr.ijosr_16_21  
Introduction: An increasing number of elderly and medically compromised patients are being treated in the dental clinic. The management of medically compromised patients by the dental practitioner might require modifications in oral health care. The purpose of this study is to assess the status of dentist handling medical emergencies in clinical set-up. And about the awareness of basic life support (BLS), commonly occurring medical emergencies at dental office and availability of the emergency kit and drugs at dental office. Materials and Methods: A survey had been conducted among 100 dentists to assess the status of dentist handling medical emergencies in clinical set-up. The questionnaire survey includes 12 questions. The data were statistically analyzed and represented with bar graph diagram. Results: In our study, the survey has shown that 89% dentists were aware of BLS. Eighty-five percent of them were trained in cardio pulmonary resuscitation, 13% were trained in recognition of emergencies and 2% of them were trained in emergency drug usage. Forty-five of them were updating emergency training yearly. Ninety percent of them said syncope is the condition occurs most commonly in dental clinic, 6% of them said epilepsy, and 4% of them said bleeding episode. Eighty-two percentage dentists have the availability of the basic emergency kit at dental office. The availability of oxygen cylinders is higher than the automated external defibrillators in dental office. Sixty-two percent of them were able to give an intravenous injection. Conclusion: Medical emergencies occur in dental hospital practice more frequently but in similar proportions to that found in general dental practice. There is a perceived need for further training among dental hospital staff in the management of medical emergencies.
  294 29 -
General dental practitioners knowledge of dental radiography among dentist in Chennai, India
Praveen, L Jailance
January-June 2021, 6(1):4-8
DOI:10.4103/ijosr.ijosr_21_21  
Introduction: Dental radiographs are one of the principal diagnostic methods used in dentistry. The safe and effective use of X-ray equipment is important to the protection of the patient and members of the dental team. The aim of this research is to evaluate the general dental practitioner's knowledge of dental radiography. Materials and Methods: The data were collected from fifty general dental practitioners at self-convenience using a structured questionnaire consisting of 9-item questionnaire. The sample was selected based on inclusion criteria and exclusion criteria. Inclusion criteria include undergraduate, postgraduate, and Chennai dental practitioners. The exclusion criteria include the students and dental radiograph assistants. In the questionnaire, details were asked about the age of the intraoral radiographic unit, kVp and mA of the equipment, the type of timer on the machine and about the geometry of the machine, and the geometric technique used for intraoral radiography. Furthermore, the questionnaire contained questions about the type of intraoral detectors that were used and whether the dentists were also using panoramic machines and, if so, which type of detector they had. Among the possible answers, one option was “no idea.” The data thus obtained were subjected to statistical evaluation. Results: 80% (40 dentist) of the equipment used in South Chennai dentist was reported to operate between 60 and 70 kVp, whereas 20% (10 dentist) claimed to be working at a tube voltage of 50 kVp. Conclusion: The results of this study showed that the knowledge of dentist in South Chennai regarding dentomaxillofacial radiology is excellent. The level of awareness of practitioners regarding radiation hazards and safety was found to be acceptable.
  288 27 -
Use of formocresol by the pediatric dentists across Chennai: A questionnaire survey
Megaha , L Jailance
July-December 2019, 4(2):23-26
DOI:10.4103/ijosr.ijosr_23_21  
Introduction: In pediatric dentistry, Buckley first introduced the formocresol as a medicament and to treat the nonvital permanent teeth in 1904. In 1930, sweet introduced the formocresol pulpotomy medicament for primary teeth.[1] The use of formocresol is more controversial than Rotherham medicaments. Other pulpotomy medicaments such as ferric sulfate, glutaraldehyde, calcium hydroxide, MTA, bioactive glass, and morphogenetic protein are used in the treatment of primary pulpotomy.[2] 19% formaldehyde and 35% tricresol, 15% glycerin, and 31% water base are the composition of formocresal. This study aims to inquire about the use of formocresol for primary as well as permanent tooth pulpotomy and to know the awareness about the diluted formulations of formocresol and its adverse effect among Chennai pediatric dentists. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire will be given to 50 pedodontists from Chennai city. The question will be based on whether the practitioners used full-strength or diluted formocresol, the brand and formulation they use and if they use diluted formocresol, how the diluted form is obtain and the knowledge about the adverse effects. Result: About 52% of dental practitioners are using commercially available formocresal. About 21% of them are using chair side preparation formocresal. About 4% of them are using formocresal which is prepared by local pharmacist. 23% of them did not know the dilution formocresal availability. Conclusion: Formocresol is the most popular medicament in the field of pediatric dentistry. This survey concluded that formocresol is a widely used medicament, and it is used as commercially available diluted form by most of the practitioner. This research article focuses on encouraging more researchers to further investigate actual effective dose and concentration for the clinical application for pulpotomy in primary teeth is an important area of further research.
  283 25 -
Attitudes of general dental practitioners toward biopsy procedures – A survey
S Aishwariya
July-December 2020, 5(2):21-25
DOI:10.4103/ijosr.ijosr_8_21  
Introduction: Biopsies are one among the diagnostic procedures in the detection of malignancy but are not conventionally performed in dental practice due to the fear of medicolegal complications, unfamiliarity with the technique, and the misconception of it being a predominantly specialist procedure. This survey was therefore aimed to explore the knowledge, attitudes, and practices of general dental practitioners (GDPs) toward biopsy procedures. Materials and Methods: A self-designed questionnaire was administered to 50 dentists comprising private practitioners and dental surgeons working in public and private institutions. The first part of the questionnaire included the demographic details of the dental practitioner, while the second part explored the knowledge, attitude, and practices toward oral tissue biopsies. Results: All GDPs (100%) believed that it was important to perform biopsies for the diagnosis of oral lesions. Eight-two per cent maintained that it should be done for all premalignant, malignant, and cystic lesions, while 18% suggested that it should be performed only in premalignant and malignant lesions, Twenty-six performed the biopsy on their own. Regarding the knowledge of various biopsy methods, 78% were aware of all biopsy techniques. Reasons quoted for not performing biopsy were the lack of experience (38%), lack of confidence (12%), and inadequate patient cooperation (12%). About 96% of dentists felt the need to update their knowledge regarding oral lesions and biopsy procedures with the preferable use of information. Conclusion: The GDPs enrolled in this study were adequately aware of oral screening and biopsy procedures but felt reluctant to perform them, which suggests that dental education programs are needed for GDPs in oral precancer/cancer detection as well as screening and diagnostic procedures.
  255 29 -
Awareness of diabetic complications among rural and urban diabetes population in Chennai
M Sherlin, Saratth Chandra Govindraj
January-June 2019, 4(1):12-17
DOI:10.4103/ijosr.ijosr_17_21  
Introduction: Diabetes is chronic, multisystem disorder with life-threatening complications. According to a study by the Lancet, India is ranked among the top three countries having high diabetic populations. Easily managed by glycemic control and simple alteration in lifestyle, it is most often allowed to escalate to the level of complications due to the lack of adequate knowledge of the disease and its management. Moreover, regional and socioeconomic differences among the rural and urban population of the city could result in skewed perceptions of the disease, in terms of treatment and control. The awareness of these patients is crucial to preventing acute complications and reducing the risk of long-term complications, in order to have a positive impact on the morbidity and mortality levels associated with the disease. Representative data on their levels of awareness would help plan large scale diabetes awareness programs to reach and masses. Thus, the present study aims to assess and compare the rural and urban diabetic population of Chennai city, on their knowledge of diabetes and associated complications. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional, community-based study was carried out on 100 diagnosed diabetics, of which 50 belonged to rural areas and 50 belonged to urban. A predesigned questionnaire pertaining to knowledge, attitude, and practices relating to the disease was administered to them. Data obtained from the two groups were compiled and statistically analyzed on Microsoft Excel 2016. Results: Out of the 100 self-reported diabetic participants, with a mean age of 45–65 years, it was evident that urban residents had consistently higher awareness rates about diabetes mellitus, its management and complications, compared to rural populations. The results emphasize the interrelation between demography and awareness. Conclusion: Urban diabetic patients are more aware than rural diabetic patients about diabetes mellitus, its management, and complications. The present study emphasizes interrelation between demography and awareness levels. The results underscore the need to design and implement the awareness programs directed at increasing the awareness among the rural population.
  191 29 -
Parent's attitude and knowledge toward dental radiography in children
S Sharmila, Manju
July-December 2019, 4(2):27-31
DOI:10.4103/ijosr.ijosr_15_21  
Introduction: Radiographs are an essential part of most clinical dental examinations and diagnoses. Radiographs often add critical information to the clinical examination revealing developmental and eruption problem in addition to caries, pulp, and periapical pathology. Radiographic guidelines exist to avoid unnecessary exposure, as well as to identify individuals for whom radiographic examination will be beneficial. It is unknown whether radiation fears are exaggerated or whether parents recognize and accept the associated risks. The aim of this study is to determine the parental knowledge and attitude toward dental radiography in children. Materials and Methods: A self-administered questionnaire is prepared and distributed to 42 parents with children who are to be radiographed in the Chennai population and covering parental level of radiation and sociodemographics was applied which is used to assess attitude toward dental radiographs. Results: Sixty-five percent parents have a positive attitude toward dental radiographs on their children. However, the majority of parents lack knowledge (20%) regarding dental radiography, especially regarding the risks involved. Conclusion: Most parents had a positive attitude toward dental radiographs, although they had limited knowledge about radiography. This study emphasizes the importance of providing accurate and appropriate information, and hence, patients and parents have a better knowledge and understanding of dental radiographs.
  178 31 -
Trauma and spinal cord injury – A narrative review
G Josiah Stanely Rose, Karthikeyan Pandiyambakkam Rajendran, P Udhayakumar, M Anita
January-June 2021, 6(1):9-14
DOI:10.4103/ijosr.ijosr_4_21  
An accident or traumatic injury to the spinal cord may result in a serious and irreversible spinal cord injury. Such spinal injury causes significant changes in the life of the injured person and his or her family members. Spinal cord injury can require extreme physical, locomotor, and psychological adaptation which exerts enormous pressure on the patients' families, who plays critically vital roles in providing support and care. It is a struggle for both victims and their families. Few studies have captured exactly not only the major physical injury but also the long-term consequences of spinal cord injury in the patients living with such injuries over time. Besides impacting the health, well-being and psychosocial behaviors of individual victims but also the interpersonal relationship within the family members. The objectives of the study are to identify the burdens of spinal cord injury and the challenges faced by persons with spinal cord injury in their day-to-day life in India and to know the intervention strategies to enhance the quality of life of persons with spinal cord injury. Therefore, the current study besides highlighting the issues faced by spinal cord injury patients also helps in greater understanding of the burden of spinal cord injury and its public health importance in India.
  178 28 -
An endodontic practice profile among general practitioners in Chennai: A questionnaire survey
S Thasleema Banu, R Ganesh
July-December 2020, 5(2):26-30
DOI:10.4103/ijosr.ijosr_22_21  
Introduction: The practice of dentistry shows a vast difference owing to the place of practice, that is, between private practice and institutional one as well as between the general practitioner and the specialists. Endodontic treatment itself offers a wide gamut of options to a clinician in the way a simple root canal can be carried out. Use of rubber dam, irrigants, prescription of antibiotics, choice in single- and multiple-visit treatment, and interappointment dressings are the aspects of one most commonly carried out procedure, that is, root canal treatment in dentistry. Materials and Methods: This study was a questionnaire-based survey of samples of dentists in Chennai. The self-administered questionnaire contained 15 close-ended questions with multiple-choice options. The data collected included demographic details of respondents, root canal preparation techniques, irrigants and intracanal medicaments used, the number of appointments, method of working length determination, root filling techniques, cements used, and the scope of treatment performed. Results: The usage of rubber dam is very low among general practitioners. Most of the dentists follow radiographs with instruments in the canal as the best option for working length determination. Out of three root canal instrumentation techniques such as crown down, push and pull, and step back, the third one (56%) is the most followed technique. Hero shaper (51%) is the choice of Ni-Ti rotary instrument used by the dentists of Chennai followed by Mtwo. Stainless steel hand files (69%) are mostly used to prepare canals followed by nickel–titanium hand files (21%) and rotary nickel–titanium files (10%). Lateral compaction (91%) is the commonly used obturation technique. Autoclave sterilization (20%) is mostly followed by the dentists followed by glass bead and chemical sterilization (12%). The most commonly used sealer is ZOE sealer (72%). Conclusion: During the past decade, many innovative concepts, techniques, and instruments have been introduced in practice, and standard of care for endodontics can be improved by increasing general dental practitioner interest. This study concludes that standard guidelines and new technologies are to be implemented by the practitioners in Chennai.
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Dental caries-related quality of life and socioeconomic status of adult population in Perambur, Chennai
H Soniya, N Nagappan
January-June 2020, 5(1):11-15
DOI:10.4103/ijosr.ijosr_20_21  
Introduction: Oral health has a major role in the general well-being of a person. Oral health problems can have wider social, economic, and psychological concerns, thereby affecting the quality of life. Oral health-related quality of life indicates an individual's perception of how their well-being and quality of life is influenced by oral health. The aim of the study is to determine the oral health-related quality of life and the association between dental caries socioeconomic status (SES) of adult population in Perambur, Chennai. Materials and Methods: The study sample consists of 200 adults and a questionnaire comprised ten questions related to oral habits and Kuppuswamy scale (modified for year 2015) to evaluate oral health-related quality of life and SES of adults in Chennai. Results: The oral health of an individual and their SES was analyzed and found that upper middle class females were commonly affected with dental caries than other class females. The most commonly affected tooth with dental caries was upper right 1st molar followed by lower left and right 1st molar. Conclusion: This study showed that there is a strong relationship between the SES and oral health. The main purpose of this study is to highlight the importance of assessing oral health-related quality of life in the clinical practice so that the clinicians can easily identify the actual difficulties faced by the patients due to oral problems and formulate appropriate treatment plan and goals.
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