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Prevalence of impacted teeth and their associated pathologies on panoramic films in the Saudi Population
Kamal Kanthan Ravikumar, Basem T Jamal, Raneem Ageel, Abdulrahman A Binaffif, Basmah Ageel, Leena Karkashan, Anas Olwi, Zuhair Natto
July-December 2018, 3(2):40-46
Aim: This study aimed to assess the prevalence of impacted teeth and their associated pathologies according to age, gender, site, and type of impaction in the Saudi population in the city of Jeddah using digital panoramic radiographs. Materials and Methods: A total of 2431 digital panoramic radiographs taken during the period between January 2010 and January 2017 were analyzed following exclusion criteria. Finally, a total of 2229 X-rays were considered for the study. Results: The most commonly impacted teeth were upper and lower left third mandibular molars. The most common angulation type was horizontal and the least was vertical impaction. Based on the overlying tissue covering the impacted teeth, soft-tissue impactions were the most common. There was no statistically significant outcome regarding the pathologies as cysts or tumors associated with the impacted teeth. There was a significant association between mesioangular impacted teeth and caries in the second molars. Conclusion: In our study, partial bony mesioangular impactions in level B positions were associated with significant distal caries in the second molars, whereas vertical impactions in level C positions caused increased distal bony loss and resorption which would warrant early surgical intervention in patients and also help in informing the patients on the ramifications of delaying the same. A statistically significant number of partial bony impacted third molars were carious, warranting early intervention.
  9,608 717 -
Pain in the face: An overview of pain of nonodontogenic origin
Kamal Kanthan Ravikumar, Karthik Ramakrishnan
January-June 2018, 3(1):1-5
It is common for pain in the orofacial region to be mistaken for a toothache, and similarly, other pains of the head and neck to mimic odontogenic pain orofacial pain may pose a diagnostic dilemma for the dental practitioner. The purpose of this article is to: (a) provide the dental practitioner with an understanding of pain etiology to consider when developing differential diagnoses for orofacial pains and (b) review various types of nonodontogenic pains which may be mistaken for a toothache. Ultimately, this article will aid the dental practitioner with preventing misdiagnosis and delivery of incorrect and sometimes irreversible procedures for nonodontogenic pain.
  8,830 1,041 -
Prevalence of dental anxiety among undergraduate students at Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences, Tanzania
Paulo Joseph Laizer, Tumaini Simon Ndekero, Karpal Singh Sohal
July-December 2018, 3(2):33-36
Background: Dental anxiety is one of the most common phobias and among the major problems in dentistry. Students in medical field are future health professionals who are supposed to provide a positive attitude toward dentistry to the society. However, if they have dental anxiety, their attitude toward dentistry is likely to be negative. Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of dental anxiety among undergraduate students at Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences (MUHAS). Methodology: This was a descriptive cross-sectional study involving undergraduate students at MUHAS. Data were collected using self-administered Modified Dental Anxiety Scale questionnaire with additional questions on demographic characteristics and a list of fear-provoking factors. Data were entered and analyzed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences computer software version 19.0 (2010; IBM Corp., Armonk, NY, USA). Chi-square test was used to assess the association between variables, and the significance level was set at P < 0.05. Results: This study enrolled 252 undergraduate students with an age range of 18–39 years. More than half (54.4%) were males. Most (55.2%) of the participants had some degree of dental anxiety. The prevalence of dental anxiety was relatively higher in females (70.4%). The association between dental anxiety and the degree courses was significant. Dental students had the lowest dental anxiety level compared to nondental students. Conclusion: The prevalence of dental anxiety among undergraduate students at MUHAS was high. Dental anxiety was significantly higher in female students. There was a significant relationship between dental anxiety and the degree course of the participants.
  8,585 702 -
Prevalence of elongated styloid process and elongation pattern on digital panoramic radiographs in Saudi Population, Jeddah
Basem T Jamal, Kamal Kanthan Ravikumar, Suha H Alyawar, Israa N Maghrabi, Abeer M Alshaikh, Hala H Jabbad, Tala H Alsohaibi
July-December 2018, 3(2):37-39
Aim: The aim of our research is to establish the prevalence of Elongated Styloid Process in Saudi Arabia Jeddah using panoramic radiographs and the assessment of the patient's age, gender, sides, and type. Materials and Methods: This study was performed as a retrospective analysis on digital panoramic radiographs using the record base archives of the International Medical Center, dental department in Jeddah. In this study, 1971 radiographs were examined. The radiographs reviewed were taken between January 2010 - January 2017 using KaVo radiographic machine model OP300-1. The patient demographics, length of the SP at the right and left side and the classification pattern were entered in spreadsheet in microsoft excel 2007; and the statistical calculation were obtained by using SPSS ( Statistical Package for Social Science ) version 21 software. 0.01. Result: The mean length of the styloid process was 29.05 mm in our study . In females it was 29.17 mm and in males it was 31.30 mm with the length being more in males than in females and the result being statistically significant with p value (0.000). The length of the styloid process increased with the age progressively and it was statistically significant with p value 0.004. The average length of right side styloid process in all age groups is 30.2mm and the left side is 29.6mm with the right side being more than the left and the results were statistically significant p value (0.00). SP Type I elongation was the highest on both the right and left sides and also in all the age groups as compared to Types II and III.
  8,025 678 -
Body image perception: An early predictor of weight change among medical students
Bhawana Pant, Sartaj Ahmad, Arvind Kumar Shukla, Chhavi Kiran
January-June 2018, 3(1):6-9
Body image is a multidimensional dynamic construct that involves internal biological and psychological factors as well as external cultural and social determinants. Individuals who perceive their bodies negatively with regard to culturally valued features may have low self-esteem, low satisfaction in life, and feeling of inferiority and pose themselves at higher risk for depression, anxiety, or eating disorders. With the change in epidemiological shift, India is witnessing simultaneous manifestation of double burden of communicable and noncommunicable disease with a challenging and daunting task for stakeholders to identify issues, resolve conflict, mobilize resources, and overcome situation with innovative solution and strategies. The presence of psychological and psychiatric morbidities among medical students has been reported in various studies conducted across the world.
  6,110 614 -
Assessment of impaction pattern of mandibular third molars: A radiographic survey
M Preethi, C Deepak
January-June 2021, 6(1):1-3
Introduction: Third molars are known as wisdom teeth as they erupt after 18 years of age. In a lot of individuals, they fail to erupt onto the oral cavity owing to a variety of reasons, the most common being lack of space in the dental arch. The aim of this study is to assess the pattern of Mandibular third molar impactions using the orthopantomograph (OPG). Materials and Methods: OPGs of 150 patients (91 female and 59 male) who were between 18 and 25 years of age and had impacted mandibular third molars were assessed for gender, side of the mandible having greater frequency of impaction, and the pattern of impaction of the third molars. Results: Bilateral imapction (26.66%) was more common when compared with than and particular left (23.33%) or right (19.33%) unilateral impactions. The mesioangular pattern of impaction was more common in both male and female and was followed by distoangular, vertical, and horizontal patterns. Conclusion: The study showed that there was no gender predilection in the presence of impacted mandibular third molars and that the mesioangular pattern of impaction was more common.
  6,241 376 -
Containing Violence against Children: Global Perspective
Saurabh RamBihariLal Shrivastava, Prateek Saurabh Shrivastava
July-December 2018, 3(2):47-47
  5,913 569 -
Hospital-based corneal retrieval at Shimla hills: An effective alternative to improve eye donation - Retrospective analysis of an eye bank data
Ram Lal Sharma, Kalpana Sharma, Shashi Sharma, Shagun Korla
January-June 2018, 3(1):10-13
Aim: The retrospective analysis of eye bank data was done in terms of sociodemographic profile, topography, and types of donations for procurement. Materials and Methods: The data of 6 years' period from 2011 to 2016 were retrieved from the records available in the eye bank of the Department of Ophthalmology IGMC, Shimla, Himachal Pradesh, India. Results: There were 100 eye donations during this period in which 48 were males and 52 were females. Most of the donors belong to the age group of 60–80 years (n = 45), the corneal grade was B + in most of the cases (39%). The number of donors with rural background was more (71%) than that of donors with the urban background (29%) as the population profile of the state is mostly rural. The hospital-based motivational eye donations constituted as many as 91 eye donations and 9 only were voluntary. Conclusion: Hospital corneal retrieval program is the main source of eye donations as the difficult hilly terrains of the state, and harsh climatic conditions in winters limit the home-based retrieval of corneas. If hospital-based deaths are converted to eye donation, it can overcome the demand-supply gap in corneal blindness.
  5,557 528 -
Prediction of postoperative outcome in mandibular third molar surgery based on preoperative variables: A Prospective clinical study
Kamal Kanthan Ravikumar, Vinod Narayanan, Mathivanan
January-June 2018, 3(1):14-23
Aims: The aim of the present study is to investigate the relationship between preoperative findings and the postoperative outcome following surgical removal of lower third molar. Settings and Design: This is a prospective observational study conducted at the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Saveetha University. A total of 104 patients requiring surgical removal of unilateral third molar were evaluated. Patients who were on antibiotics and analgesic for an underlying problem related to impacted third molars preoperatively were excluded. Preoperative variables evaluated were age, sex, maximum interincisal distance, facial measurements both vertical and horizontal, radiographic measurement of position, class, angulation of impacted lower third molar, experience of operator, and duration of surgery. Postoperative evaluation was done on the 1st and 4th day and 7th postoperative day, and the following parameters were evaluated: facial swelling, pain, dry socket, secondary infection, paresthesia, postoperative bleeding, and fracture of jaw. Statistical Analysis Used: The preoperative parameters and postoperative outcomes were compared and correlated using one-way ANOVA, independent “t” test, and Chi-square test. Results: There is statistically significant result to demonstrate that pain and swelling increase with age, the depth of impaction, and when there is no adequate available space between the anterior border of ramus and second molar. As duration of surgery increases, pain, swelling, trismus, and frequency of dry socket increase in our study. Frequency of dry socket increases with increased depth of impaction. Conclusions: In our study, age, sex, the depth of impaction, the space available for the impacted tooth between the anterior border of ramus and second molar, duration of surgery, and horizontal and distoangular impactions have a positive correlation with the outcome of surgical removal of third molar.
  5,468 601 -
General dental practitioners knowledge of dental radiography among dentist in Chennai, India
Praveen, L Jailance
January-June 2021, 6(1):4-8
Introduction: Dental radiographs are one of the principal diagnostic methods used in dentistry. The safe and effective use of X-ray equipment is important to the protection of the patient and members of the dental team. The aim of this research is to evaluate the general dental practitioner's knowledge of dental radiography. Materials and Methods: The data were collected from fifty general dental practitioners at self-convenience using a structured questionnaire consisting of 9-item questionnaire. The sample was selected based on inclusion criteria and exclusion criteria. Inclusion criteria include undergraduate, postgraduate, and Chennai dental practitioners. The exclusion criteria include the students and dental radiograph assistants. In the questionnaire, details were asked about the age of the intraoral radiographic unit, kVp and mA of the equipment, the type of timer on the machine and about the geometry of the machine, and the geometric technique used for intraoral radiography. Furthermore, the questionnaire contained questions about the type of intraoral detectors that were used and whether the dentists were also using panoramic machines and, if so, which type of detector they had. Among the possible answers, one option was “no idea.” The data thus obtained were subjected to statistical evaluation. Results: 80% (40 dentist) of the equipment used in South Chennai dentist was reported to operate between 60 and 70 kVp, whereas 20% (10 dentist) claimed to be working at a tube voltage of 50 kVp. Conclusion: The results of this study showed that the knowledge of dentist in South Chennai regarding dentomaxillofacial radiology is excellent. The level of awareness of practitioners regarding radiation hazards and safety was found to be acceptable.
  5,693 259 -
Clinical and genetic analysis of a familial nonsyndromic oligodontia in a female patient: A rare case report
Saraswathi K Gopal, B G Harsha Vardhan, J Vijayashree Priyadharsini, M Padma
January-June 2018, 3(1):24-29
Teeth agenesis is the most prevalent craniofacial congenital malformation in humans. Missing teeth is described in literature by various terms such as oligodontia, anodontia, and hypodontia. While tooth agenesis may be associated with several syndromes, nonsyndromic oligodontia refers to the congenital absence of more than six teeth in the absence of any other deformity. Studies in molecular genetics have made it possible to identify the exact genes responsible for the development of teeth and trace the mutations that cause oligodontia. The present case describes agenesis of permanent teeth which are familial and with no apparent systemic abnormalities.
  5,455 479 -
Impact of new amendments in child labor laws on the health of children in India
Madhur Borah
January-June 2018, 3(1):30-31
  5,199 605 -
Trauma and spinal cord injury – A narrative review
G Josiah Stanely Rose, Karthikeyan Pandiyambakkam Rajendran, P Udhayakumar, M Anita
January-June 2021, 6(1):9-14
An accident or traumatic injury to the spinal cord may result in a serious and irreversible spinal cord injury. Such spinal injury causes significant changes in the life of the injured person and his or her family members. Spinal cord injury can require extreme physical, locomotor, and psychological adaptation which exerts enormous pressure on the patients' families, who plays critically vital roles in providing support and care. It is a struggle for both victims and their families. Few studies have captured exactly not only the major physical injury but also the long-term consequences of spinal cord injury in the patients living with such injuries over time. Besides impacting the health, well-being and psychosocial behaviors of individual victims but also the interpersonal relationship within the family members. The objectives of the study are to identify the burdens of spinal cord injury and the challenges faced by persons with spinal cord injury in their day-to-day life in India and to know the intervention strategies to enhance the quality of life of persons with spinal cord injury. Therefore, the current study besides highlighting the issues faced by spinal cord injury patients also helps in greater understanding of the burden of spinal cord injury and its public health importance in India.
  5,421 312 -
Personality style and its relation with level of anxiety
Tanushree Chatterjee, Priyanka Kacker
July-December 2020, 5(2):17-20
“Personality is the dynamic organization within the individual of those psychological systems that determine his/her unique adjustments to the environment” (Allport, 1937). It includes behavioral characteristics, both inherent and acquired, that distinguish one person from another and that can be observed in people's relations to the environment and to the social group. The American Psychological Association defines anxiety as “an emotion characterized by feelings of tension, worried thoughts, and physical changes such as increased blood pressure.” Introverts and extroverts experience the world – and experience anxiety – in markedly different ways. Some studies show that introverts are more vulnerable to anxiety hence at a greater risk of clinical depression. This study aims to find a relation between personality type and anxiety level of an individual. The study was conducted on 100 individuals (50 males and 50 females, ranging from the age group of 20–30 years) in which Eysenck's Personality Questionnaire-Revised was used to identify the personality type and Beck Anxiety Inventory, and a self-analysis questionnaire was used to measure the anxiety level of the individual. A comparison between both the test results revealed that individuals who are found to be extroverts indicate mild anxiety on the anxiety scale whereas individuals who are found to be introverts indicate high levels of anxiety on the anxiety scale. The accuracy of this research can however be determined through a more detailed research.
  4,016 331 -
Prevalence of various classes of kennedy's classification – a cross-sectional survey
Amrita Ajith, Lakshmi Menon
January-June 2021, 6(1):32-35
Introduction: The design of prosthetic replacement depends upon the patterns of partial edentulism. The aim of the classification of partially edentulous arches is to facilitate the communication of prosthesis designs and treatment options among professional colleagues, students, and technicians. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of various classes of Kennedy's classification in patients reporting to Saveetha Dental College. Materials and Methods: One hundred and seventy patients were recruited in this study from February 2015 to May 2015 of the age group of 30–60 years. Kennedy's classification was utilized after applying Applegate's rules to record the partial edentulism. Results: One hundred and one male patients and 69 female patients participated in this study. Out of this, 71 were bite cases and 99 were single arch cases. Partial edentulism in the maxillary arch was found in 22.3% patients, whereas 35.9% patients had partial edentulism in the mandibular arch. The remaining 41.8% of patients had missing teeth in both arches. Kennedy's Class I was found to be most common, whereas Kennedy's Class IV the least common. Conclusion: A higher frequency of tooth loss due to dental caries and negligence of oral health among the patients in this study is quite alarming and is suggestive of need to create the awareness among dental health-care system for timely prevention of diseases and factors leading to tooth loss. By bringing about the awareness of tooth loss and available treatment options, the dental needs of the community could be met leading to an overall improvement in their quality of life.
  4,067 271 -
Measuring orthognathic surgery satisfaction in orthodontic patients – A questionnaire survey
S Thasleema Banu, N Kannan
January-June 2021, 6(1):15-18
Introduction: In orthodontic-surgical treatment, the motivation of the patient for seeking treatment and her/his expectations of the results should be considered carefully in treatment planning. Therefore, the patient satisfaction will be improved. The objective of this study was to develop a reliable self-report measure of consumer satisfaction with orthodontic treatment, and to preliminarily assess its validity. The aim of this study was to assess patients who have undergone orthognathic surgery. Materials and Methods: A patient-centered questionnaire to assess the satisfaction of the patients undergoing orthognathic surgery was being prepared and given to fifty patients in Private Dental College, and the results are being discussed. This questionnaire is easily and quickly applicable and economic, however, it should be kept in mind that it is subjective. Results: Fifty participants who attended the out patient of Department of Orthodontics, Private Dental College, were included in the study. When questions were asked about their experience in the department, 98% felt the treatment was hygienic, 96% felt the treatment was expensive, and 86% felt they were well informed. Moreover, only 62% had discomfort during the treatment. When asked about treatment outcomes, 97% had a smile satisfaction and 95% said they would recommend to friends. Eighty-eight percent felt they had experienced pain. Finally, questions were asked about how it affects the quality of life of the patients. Conclusion: Orthognathic surgery causes a significant improvement in patients' quality of life. This improvement was seen in emotional, oral function, psychological, and social domains of quality of life. The maximum influence was in emotional and the least in functional aspect. Our study assessed the quality of life in a limited period postoperatively, and obviously, there is a need for longitudinal studies in this area of health-care services.
  3,814 294 -
Factors contributing to not seeking orthodontic treatment in male adolescents - A questionnaire study
Preethi Manoharan, Anu
January-June 2021, 6(1):19-21
Introduction: Motivation is an impetus for patients to seek orthodontic treatment; it also affects adherence, treatment outcomes, and satisfaction towards orthodontic treatment. The aim of this study was to assess the lack of motivation of adult male patients or the other reasons responsible for not seeking orthodontic treatment, and classify the patients according to their reasons. Prejudiced notions about treatment and various fears have created a resistance or hesitation towards orthodontic treatment in men. The aim of this study is to assess the mind set and overall attitude of male adolescent patients toward not seeking orthodontic correction for malocclusion. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire based study was conducted at the department of Orthodontics, Private Dental College, a total of 50 male subjects with malocclusions requiring orthodontic interventions were selected for the study. Data was collected using a structured, self-administered questionnaire which was designed after reviewing recent articles, developments and also similar questionnaires that are based on the objectives of the study. Results: Sixty-nine percent of subjects were aware that they had a malocclusion whereas the remaining 31% were not aware. On asking as to why they were not correcting the malocclusion, 18% stated that it was embarrassing to wear braces, 4% stated that the treatment was too expensive, 19% stated that the treatment was that of a long duration, 7% felt they were too old for seeking orthodontic treatment, 6% had no interest to do the treatment, 9% stated it would painful, another 16% had concerns that food would get stuck to the braces, 21% were scared to undergo treatment. Conclusion: The unwillingness of male adolescent patients for seeking orthodontic treatment is studied and the reasons are discussed. This will help in educating them on the long term effects of malocclusion and to convince them for opting to go ahead with orthodontic treatment.
  3,796 310 -
Patients knowledge and attitude in endodontic treatment: A questionnaire-based study
M Dhanalakshmi, Anith Balaji
January-June 2021, 6(1):22-27
Introduction: The basic aspect of modern endodontics is painlessness and effectiveness of the treatment of diseased dental pulp. The disease of dental pulp is mainly caused due to dental caries. Dental caries is a common chronic disease prevalent all over the world. It is a microbiologic disease which manifests as demineralization of hard tissues of the tooth. If detected early, its management can be done easily via conservative techniques such as restorations. As it progresses to involve the vascular tissue of the tooth, it may cause symptoms such as pain and swelling. This leads patients to seek dental care. In addition, dental decay may cause tooth loss which can reduce the ability to eat fibrous foods, leading to dietary deficiencies. Root canal treatment (RCT) is a procedure that uses biologically acceptable chemical and mechanical treatment in the root canal system to eliminate pulpal and peri-radicular diseases and to promote healing and repair of peri-radicular tissue.The aim of this research is to study the patients' knowledge and attitude in endodontic treatment. Materials and Methods: A total of 13 questions were prepared and distributed to 100 patients in Private Dental College which included recording patients' knowledge and attitude toward root canal therapy. Results: About 68% of participants responded positively, but when asked in detail what RCT does and whether it is complicated, the responses were mixed and majority did not know or were not sure. Conclusion: From the self-prepared questionnaire and based on the responses acquired, it can be seen that on an average 58% of responses for all fifteen questions turned out to be positive and patients who had prior knowledge about RCT were interested in proceeding post endodontic treatments to increase the success of RCT.
  3,359 305 -
Prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders among dental students: A questionnaire survey
S Geethika, N Sharada
January-June 2021, 6(1):50-54
Introduction: The most important causes of this disorder can be awkward postures, repetitive and rapid movements, excessive force, psychological factors, and genetic and generally inappropriate body condition. Damage or injury can be defined as a disorder of the musculoskeletal system (muscles, ligaments, tendons, joints, nerves, blood vessels, and soft tissues). The symptoms of musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) increase with the number of years of practice. The prevention and reduction of MSDs among dentists should include their knowledge in dental ergonomics and awareness regarding the importance of work-related risk factors. This study aimed to identify risk factors for MSDs among dentists and identify its effective risk factors, in order to reduce musculoskeletal problems, and is designed to improve the work environment. Materials and Methods: The target population of this investigation was the students of dental school. A sample of 300 questionnaires were distributed. To determine the prevalence of MSDs, the questionnaire was prepared. The questionnaire assessed the MSDs, pain in different organs of the body. Finally, the results are evaluated in percentage. Results: Out of 300 questionnaires distributed, the female prevalence was higher. Eighty-six percent of the people do not do physical exercise daily. Seventy-one percent of the dental students take rest after each patient, 15% take rest once an hour, and 13% of the students never take rest at all. Ninety-five percent of the dental students involve frequent bending of elbows and joints. Ninety-one percent of them feel some kind of musculoskeletal discomfort in the body and other 9% are free from it. Most discomfort is felt in the neck region that is 41% and 23% in one or both elbows, 15% in one or both shoulders, and 20% in back/spine. Sixty-six percent of the students feel the pain most of the time and 22% always and 11% at times. Fifty percent of the students follow periodic stretching and breaks as the pain relief strategy. Thirty-six percent follow postural awareness strategy and 13% follow strengthening exercises. Conclusion: Therefore, dentists should implement right ergonomic designs in their dental clinics along with doing regular exercise and relaxation techniques, which help them to combat stress, thus improving the quality of life and resulting in consistent long-lasting work efficiency of the dentists.
  2,772 207 -
Evaluation of knowledge, experience, and perceptions about medical emergencies among dentists in Chennai, India
NM Pravina, R Ganesh
January-June 2020, 5(1):1-5
Introduction: Dentists encounter medical emergencies in their clinics which can be life threatening. These emergencies should be treated immediately and cannot be avoided or referred, because they put the life and health of patients at risk. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate how well dentists understand medical emergency during dental treatment. The aim of this research is to evaluate the knowledge, experience, and perceptions about medical emergencies among dentists in Chennai, India. Materials and Methods: Data were collected from 50 dentists of Chennai at self-convenience using a structured questionnaire consisting of a 10-item questionnaire. The sample was selected based on certain inclusion and exclusion criteria. Inclusion criteria include postgraduates and South Chennai dentists. Exclusion criteria include students and dental assistants. Results: The study reveals that 60% of the dentists in Chennai were confidently able to deal the life-threatening emergency situations whereas 100% of the dentists have knowledge of how to manage the life-threatening emergency situations. Conclusion: Based on the above study, it can be concluded that the level of training and the level of knowledge on medical emergencies of the dentist in Chennai are good but not up to the desirable standard.
  2,732 238 -
Awareness of diabetic complications among rural and urban diabetes population in Chennai
M Sherlin, Saratth Chandra Govindraj
January-June 2019, 4(1):12-17
Introduction: Diabetes is chronic, multisystem disorder with life-threatening complications. According to a study by the Lancet, India is ranked among the top three countries having high diabetic populations. Easily managed by glycemic control and simple alteration in lifestyle, it is most often allowed to escalate to the level of complications due to the lack of adequate knowledge of the disease and its management. Moreover, regional and socioeconomic differences among the rural and urban population of the city could result in skewed perceptions of the disease, in terms of treatment and control. The awareness of these patients is crucial to preventing acute complications and reducing the risk of long-term complications, in order to have a positive impact on the morbidity and mortality levels associated with the disease. Representative data on their levels of awareness would help plan large scale diabetes awareness programs to reach and masses. Thus, the present study aims to assess and compare the rural and urban diabetic population of Chennai city, on their knowledge of diabetes and associated complications. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional, community-based study was carried out on 100 diagnosed diabetics, of which 50 belonged to rural areas and 50 belonged to urban. A predesigned questionnaire pertaining to knowledge, attitude, and practices relating to the disease was administered to them. Data obtained from the two groups were compiled and statistically analyzed on Microsoft Excel 2016. Results: Out of the 100 self-reported diabetic participants, with a mean age of 45–65 years, it was evident that urban residents had consistently higher awareness rates about diabetes mellitus, its management and complications, compared to rural populations. The results emphasize the interrelation between demography and awareness. Conclusion: Urban diabetic patients are more aware than rural diabetic patients about diabetes mellitus, its management, and complications. The present study emphasizes interrelation between demography and awareness levels. The results underscore the need to design and implement the awareness programs directed at increasing the awareness among the rural population.
  2,705 180 -
Status of dentist handling medical emergencies in clinical set-up – A survey
M Halith Ahamed, Vidhya
January-June 2020, 5(1):6-10
Introduction: An increasing number of elderly and medically compromised patients are being treated in the dental clinic. The management of medically compromised patients by the dental practitioner might require modifications in oral health care. The purpose of this study is to assess the status of dentist handling medical emergencies in clinical set-up. And about the awareness of basic life support (BLS), commonly occurring medical emergencies at dental office and availability of the emergency kit and drugs at dental office. Materials and Methods: A survey had been conducted among 100 dentists to assess the status of dentist handling medical emergencies in clinical set-up. The questionnaire survey includes 12 questions. The data were statistically analyzed and represented with bar graph diagram. Results: In our study, the survey has shown that 89% dentists were aware of BLS. Eighty-five percent of them were trained in cardio pulmonary resuscitation, 13% were trained in recognition of emergencies and 2% of them were trained in emergency drug usage. Forty-five of them were updating emergency training yearly. Ninety percent of them said syncope is the condition occurs most commonly in dental clinic, 6% of them said epilepsy, and 4% of them said bleeding episode. Eighty-two percentage dentists have the availability of the basic emergency kit at dental office. The availability of oxygen cylinders is higher than the automated external defibrillators in dental office. Sixty-two percent of them were able to give an intravenous injection. Conclusion: Medical emergencies occur in dental hospital practice more frequently but in similar proportions to that found in general dental practice. There is a perceived need for further training among dental hospital staff in the management of medical emergencies.
  2,683 196 -
A survey on evaluation of preparedness for medical emergencies at dental office
H Soniya, Manju
July-December 2019, 4(2):19-22
Introduction: Medical emergencies can occur at any time in the dental office. Every health care provider should be aware of recognizing and handling medical emergencies in their respective workplace. All should be trained and frequently updated regarding aiding patient in emergency situations. The aim of this study is to determine the knowledge and preparedness of a dental practitioner to manage medical emergencies at their dental office. Materials and Methods: A self-administered questionnaire comprising of 10 questions was designed relating to medical emergencies that may occur in dental office, its prevention, and management and was distributed to the practicing dentists in and around Chennai. Results: A total of 150 dentists participated in this study. Of these, 48 were BDS graduates and 102 were MDS graduates. Almost 134 have their working place in urban areas, 12 of them have working place in rural areas and 4 of them have their working place in both urban and rural areas. This study shows almost 97% of surveyed dentists enquire medical history, including medication and allergy. Only 60% of dentists record vital signs of their patients. The study shows that only 72.6% were trained for management of medical emergencies in dental office and 94.6% of them responded that training to dentist for the management of medical emergencies is important. It is found that only 68% of participants have been reported to be confident in handling medical emergency situation, and about 27% have been faced with medical emergency for the past 12 months. Conclusion: Dentists being members of the healthcare profession, should be prepared to deal with medical emergencies which may arise at their workplace. A better knowledge of medical emergencies is essential for further development and professional care for people with various medical complications. This will ensure the provision of better and safer dental healthcare services for the population.
  2,628 228 -
Use of formocresol by the pediatric dentists across Chennai: A questionnaire survey
Megaha , L Jailance
July-December 2019, 4(2):23-26
Introduction: In pediatric dentistry, Buckley first introduced the formocresol as a medicament and to treat the nonvital permanent teeth in 1904. In 1930, sweet introduced the formocresol pulpotomy medicament for primary teeth.[1] The use of formocresol is more controversial than Rotherham medicaments. Other pulpotomy medicaments such as ferric sulfate, glutaraldehyde, calcium hydroxide, MTA, bioactive glass, and morphogenetic protein are used in the treatment of primary pulpotomy.[2] 19% formaldehyde and 35% tricresol, 15% glycerin, and 31% water base are the composition of formocresal. This study aims to inquire about the use of formocresol for primary as well as permanent tooth pulpotomy and to know the awareness about the diluted formulations of formocresol and its adverse effect among Chennai pediatric dentists. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire will be given to 50 pedodontists from Chennai city. The question will be based on whether the practitioners used full-strength or diluted formocresol, the brand and formulation they use and if they use diluted formocresol, how the diluted form is obtain and the knowledge about the adverse effects. Result: About 52% of dental practitioners are using commercially available formocresal. About 21% of them are using chair side preparation formocresal. About 4% of them are using formocresal which is prepared by local pharmacist. 23% of them did not know the dilution formocresal availability. Conclusion: Formocresol is the most popular medicament in the field of pediatric dentistry. This survey concluded that formocresol is a widely used medicament, and it is used as commercially available diluted form by most of the practitioner. This research article focuses on encouraging more researchers to further investigate actual effective dose and concentration for the clinical application for pulpotomy in primary teeth is an important area of further research.
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Parent's attitude and knowledge toward dental radiography in children
S Sharmila, Manju
July-December 2019, 4(2):27-31
Introduction: Radiographs are an essential part of most clinical dental examinations and diagnoses. Radiographs often add critical information to the clinical examination revealing developmental and eruption problem in addition to caries, pulp, and periapical pathology. Radiographic guidelines exist to avoid unnecessary exposure, as well as to identify individuals for whom radiographic examination will be beneficial. It is unknown whether radiation fears are exaggerated or whether parents recognize and accept the associated risks. The aim of this study is to determine the parental knowledge and attitude toward dental radiography in children. Materials and Methods: A self-administered questionnaire is prepared and distributed to 42 parents with children who are to be radiographed in the Chennai population and covering parental level of radiation and sociodemographics was applied which is used to assess attitude toward dental radiographs. Results: Sixty-five percent parents have a positive attitude toward dental radiographs on their children. However, the majority of parents lack knowledge (20%) regarding dental radiography, especially regarding the risks involved. Conclusion: Most parents had a positive attitude toward dental radiographs, although they had limited knowledge about radiography. This study emphasizes the importance of providing accurate and appropriate information, and hence, patients and parents have a better knowledge and understanding of dental radiographs.
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